Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/2891
Title: NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BEEF SAUSAGES PREPARED USING PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum glaucum) FLOUR AS EXTENDER
Authors: Yaro, J.
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: The study investigated the nutritional and sensory qualities of beef sausages with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour as extender. Three different experiments were conducted using raw, roasted and soaked pearl millet flour to replace lean beef at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The treatments were arranged as a completely randomised design in each experiment. There was no significant (P > 0.05) differences in protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents of the three forms of flour. However, the moisture content of raw pearl millet flour was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than roasted pearl millet flour. Iron, zinc and calcium contents were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in roasted pearl millet flour than in raw and soaked pearl millet flours, while magnesium and potassium contents were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in raw pearl millet flour than in roasted and soaked pearl millet flours. The proximate results of raw pearl millet flour beef sausages (RaPMFS) were not significantly (P > 0.05) different except moisture and mineral contents that were significantly (P < 0.05) different with increasing level of replacement. The pH of the control was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the flour treated sausages, while cooking loss significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with increased levels of replacement. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences in drip loss and water activity. Peroxide value and water holding capacity of the sausages were not significantly different. Sensory qualities of the flour treated sausages and the control did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) during the storage period except for flavour liking and overall liking which differed significantly (P< 0.05) in week two. Colour properties L* (Lightness) were not significantly (P > 0.05) different, but a*(Redness) and b* (Yellowness) were significantly (P < 0.05) different. The lowest formulation cost was achieved at increasing replacement levels of pearl millet flour. Higher replacement of lean beef with roasted pearl millet flour resulted in reduced moisture content. Ash, fat and protein contents of roasted pearl millet flour beef sausages (RoPMFS) were not significantly (P > 0.05) different. Numerically, the 15% inclusion had a higher (20.02%) crude protein content than the control (18.81%). Mineral contents of the treatments were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control except for the 10%RoPMFS which was lower in potassium. Zinc content of the 5% inclusion was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the control, 10% and 15% inclusions. pH increased with increased level of replacement, while cooking loss was lower at 10% inclusion. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in water holding capacity and peroxide value of the sausages, whereas drip loss and water activity of the sausages were significantly (P < 0.05) different. There was a nonsignificant (P > 0.05) difference in the sensory qualities in week 1 and 3, however, in week two overall liking of the control was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the 10% and 15% inclusion. Colour properties L* (Lightness) did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but a* (Redness) and b* (Yellowness) were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Low formulation cost was achieved at higher inclusion level. The proximate results of soaked pearl millet flour beef sausages (SoPMFS) were not significantly (P > 0.05) different except moisture content. Iron, magnesium and calcium contents of the treatments were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the control. However, potassium and zinc contents of the control were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the treatments. The pH was not significantly (P > 0.05) different, cooking loss was lowest at 15% inclusion. Water holding capacity of the control was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the 15% inclusion, while the water activity of the 10% inclusion was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the control. There were non-significant (P > 0.05) differences in peroxide value and sensory characteristics of the sausages. The inclusion of pearl millet flour as an extender did not impact negatively on the sensory and nutritional qualities of beef sausages. Pearl millet flour (raw, roasted and soaked) can be incorporated up to 10% in beef sausages by meat processors.
Description: MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY IN ANIMAL SCIENCE (MEAT SCIENCE)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/2891
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Agriculture



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